Kanye to The banner

1 - 13 of 13 Posts

·
Registered
Joined
·
6,706 Posts
Discussion Starter #1
To say Kid Cudi's been through a lot this year would be an understatement. Getting locked up, battling a drug problem, and starting a family with his newly-born daughter all happened since he dropped his excellent debut album, Man On The Moon: The End of Day. Today Cudder (who is rumored to be doing a surprise performance at the BAPE store this evening) drops his follow-up effort, the aptly-titled Man On The Moon II: The Legend of Mr. Rager, which will give people insight into his journey this past year. He spoke to us about the album in detail for our controversial cover story, but we also wanted to talk to the producers and featured artists from MOTM II to get their perspectives on working with Cudder. Read on for an exclusive track-by-track breakdown by the major players involved in the music from this highly-anticipated album...

Scott Mescudi Vs The World f/ Cee-Lo

Produced by: Emile
Emile: “We recorded this in Hawaii. Cudi went in and did the first verse and the chorus on that and he actually wrote that chorus in one take. It sat for a while, he didn't go back to it, even though I was jocking him to finish the song. Pat was like, ’Cee Lo would sound fresh doing that chorus that Cudi wrote’ when it was us just talking about the record. As months went on, I just kept messing with the beat; it was Cudi’s idea to actually slow the drums down at the beginning then have them speed up, which I thought was pretty fresh. Finally I got the beat to where he was interested, and he ended up finishing the song in the eighth or ninth inning. We reached out to Cee Lo, because that idea kinda stuck and we're all Cee Lo fans. We hit him up and he was into it. He did it on his own and sent it back. He re-sang Cudi’s chorus and did these ill background harmonies, and then we sent it to Larry Gold to do the strings. My favorite part is that bridge where Cudi echoes the chorus Larry did. The strings are just incredible; I thought it was just really fresh the way it came together with Cee Lo doing the harmonies.”

Cee Lo: “We met at this spot out in L.A. called Apple. We both were in town at the same time. That was my first time meeting him and we kicked it that night, just being casual. But his people did reach out and ask me to be a part of the record, and it was easy ’cause I fuck with him. [In March or February] I was working at Nightbird [Studios] at the Sunset Marquis. They sent over the files and since he had a scratch vocal of what he was feelin’ for the hook—it was kinda easy for me to just smash on it and send it right back. I stayed within the hook, but added all the background nuances and stuff like that.”

REVOFEV

Produced by: Plain Pat
Plain Pat: “We did this in Hawaii during the early stages. I already had it sampled, and I was just playing it and Cudi was like, ’Oh man, I like that,’ and we tracked it out. We worked on it for a while, probably like two months with all the strings, and Mike Dean played on it. It just sat around and we just kept building on it. It was a good introduction to the album because it was like, ’Oh, this is what they’re doing?’ No drums, no beat really, just a weird sample and Cudi doing the ’oh oh oh,’ so it was either going to be the intro or one of the first songs on the album. It always seemed like an introduction-type song.”

Don't Play This Song f/ Mary J. Blige

Produced by: Emile
Emile: “I think this was just one of those ’me and Cudi in my studio’ songs; I was messing around with some keys and then I came up with those drums and he really loved the record. The Mary J. Blige feature is interesting, because we actually had her coming in to do a different song—she ended up recording three songs with Cudi and this was the last one. I think she just jumped on it because she loved it. The song was done and she just really felt what Cudi was saying and I think she was moved by the record. Mary was like, ’Could I do something on that?’ and Cudi was like, ’Hell fucking yeah you can!’ She kicked it all night in the studio; it wasn't a situation where she laid her vocals and then just left as fast as she could. She was really enthusiastic about the music and loved the song so much. I don’t think he asked her to get on anything, and she just volunteered, which we were more than happy about.”

We Aite (Wake Your Mind Up)

Produced by: Emile
Emile: “That was just another 9th inning record that’s more of an interlude. We were doing this DVD with Jason Goldwatch and he was stressing me to send him music to help him score the DVD, and that was a piece that I just made to go along with a certain scene in the DVD where Cudi is in front of this huge crowd of kids. Coincidentally, that same night I was in the studio with Cudi and played him that score and he was just like, ’Man, that shit is mad fresh. Hold on let me just load it into Pro Tools and do something.’ It was super-spur of the moment. We actually did it old-school, with the cheap-ass $60 microphone plugged into the middle of the room and the speakers blasting. He was sitting on the couch smoking a blunt and just did it in one take. It turned out to be this dope little chant type of thing. It’s a little bit more than an interlude, but it's not quite a full song. It just had a really dope energy, so he wanted it on the album.”

Marijuana

Produced by: Dot Da Genius
Dot Da Genius: “The evolution of that track is so crazy. We literally started in L.A. and it sounded one way first, then we went to Hawaii to mess with Kanye and the record completely transformed. It wasn’t really ballad-y, because if you listen to ’Marijuana’ it’s almost like a ballad, but he’s rapping. It was more synth-heavy because we had this one crazy synth going through it. But when we were in Hawaii it started annoying Cudi, so we ended up changing it to keys, and that set the mood for him—that’s when he re-made his verse and he put everything together. We had Mike Dean, who’s Kanye’s main engineer and guitarist; he put the guitar parts down. It’s one verse, a guitar solo breakdown, and an outro. That’s pretty much how that song came about.”

Mojo So Dope

Produced by: Emile
Emile: “We did that in Hawaii. I was actually in a bookstore and I heard the sample come on and I was like, ’Man, that shit is so fresh.’ I wanted to ask the guy the name of the band. It turned out it was a relatively new band from Denmark called The Choir Of Young Believers. I don’t sample too much stuff anymore, but I always had that ’to sample’ folder and it's just one of them joints where I was listening to it loud as shit because I’m half deaf, and Cudi heard it through the headphones and he was like, ’Yo, what is that?’ I hooking it up on my laptop which I never do—I use keyboards—and he put the headphones on and was like, ’Let’s go with that.’ He nailed it in like an hour. It's just like a really dope, straight hip-hop joint. I really like his raps on that one too. I love that second verse. The way he spit it just sounded really fresh, and kind of calm.”

Ashin' Kusher

Produced by: Chuck Inglish
Chuck Inglish: “Me and Cudi been homeboys for a minute. We did a couple of records for Man On The Moon, but it was a sample from Dawn Of The Dead we couldn't clear in time for it to make the first one. We were sending each other music through AIM. I had mixed [the beat] ’cause it would've been a Cool Kids record, but when he sent it back it blew my face off. It was October exactly of last year because I remember it was me sitting there in the day and experimenting with different breaks. It sounded like I was at a beach resort and the waves were smackin’ me in the ears. Me and Cudi didn't have a chance to work in the studio together, but he completely freestyled the whole jam, punchlines, all of that. He told me, ’I felt it.’ It was more like he felt what he was gonna say before. So I wouldn't say it was freestyling cause a lot of things he said had some sort of point to it.

“Actually, we had two songs on the album. The last song, called ’Everybody's Letting Go,’ didn't make the final cut, but it was gonna be the last song. Then Mary J. Blige re-recorded it and it sounded real different. I don't know what it's gonna be used for now, but I remember he came into [Chicago] back in March and I went by to kick it with him. We were kickin’ it, watchin’ Black Dynamite, and I was just letting him listen to beats on my iPhone. That beat just stuck out to him, and he picked that one. It might be for a future project.”

Erase Me f/ Kanye West

Produced by: Jim Jonsin
Jim Jonsin: “I actually ran into [Cudi] at The London Hotel and he said, ’Yo we gotta get together.’ We didn’t have time to kick it then—he was in and out of there. Early 2010, though, it happened at Midnight Blues studios in Miami. I actually did the track the day before the session. I made a couple of tracks for him in the session, then we started going through my catalogue. I played the track I’d already made for him; he loved it, and he startedwriting to it. It’s this rocked-out, kind of mixed hip-hop groove.

“I didn’t know what to expect from him. It was pretty clear that he was all over the spectrum. He was into house, rock, and he was definitely into hip-hop. When he heard that track he immediately was like, ’I love that. I wanna do that.’ I think he wrote that in 30 minutes or so. [We did it in] one day.

“I didn’t even know Kanye had cut a verse to ’Erase Me.’ I’d done a record sampling Duran Duran. I played it for my manager and he said, ’Dude, Cudi would love this.’ So he sent it out to Cudi and calls me back saying, ’Cudi just cut a record with Kanye and I think it’s the Duran Duran record.’ So I went on an interview saying I heard Cudi just did a record with Kanye over this Duran Duran sample. I heard that he had done one of the songs, so I assumed it was the new one ’cause I heard that Cudi finished ’Erase Me,’ and it was already done.

“I knew it was gonna be a smash. But I didn’t know if it was gonna be a single or not ’cause I thought they were looking for something else. But it ended up being the single anyway. I bet Pat a hundred bucks [that it would be a single]. Pat owes me a hundred bucks, man.”

Wild'n Cuz I'm Young

Produced by: Plain Pat
Plain Pat: “In the studio, especially in the Kanye sessions, I’ll just be sitting in the corner with my MPC and headphones on, and I’ll have tons of little things that I don’t ever play for anybody. I thought that shit was fresh, but when I did it, it was just some silly underground shit and Cudi was like, ’Nah, I’m fuckin’ with that.’ As soon as he did the ’Wild’n cause I’m young’ chorus I said, ’That’s crazy, let me sample it.’ When we recorded it, we didn’t use a booth; we just recorded right in the room on an M57. That’s the mic you use live, like an open microphone—he was recording in the booth, but he said it sounded too clean given that the beat was so unorthodox and fucked up. Cudi recorded it the same way Kanye did ’So Appalled.’ He had it for a while, but only had the hook to the song. We made the beat in Hawaii, but we recorded it in L.A. a few months later. That’s when they all wanted that beat. Pusha T wanted it, Kanye wanted it, and Cudi wouldn’t give it up. [Laughs].

“I like that second verse a lot, but I think all of his records are extremely open. He says shit that no other rapper would confess to so I think that verse, if you know Cudi, that was definitely his life. Going to 1Oak every Tuesday since Tuesdays were poppin’ there, and then hitting Cozy Soup ’n’ Burger at 4 a.m. One night at Oak, I think he might have performed, but there had been a lot of those instances where I throw or dump ice on people, that’s how that line I’m mentioned in came about. The whole vibe of that record was to sound like you were fucked up, like you were high or drunk, and I think we achieved that. [Laughs.] Emile did the outro with the vocals going backwards.”
 

·
Registered
Joined
·
6,706 Posts
Discussion Starter #2
The Mood

Produced by: Emile
Emile: “That was recorded pretty recently at the studio, just me and him. I was at the keyboard playing around with stuff and that sound—that main little blippy sound—came up and Cudi was like, ’Man what’s that shit?’ We built it up and started stacking it; it was one of those things where he was writing verses as I was making the beat, and it was just a natural record. He had two verses, and I try to do a lot of interesting shit for bridges or third verses on this album because I know a lot of these songs don’t have thirds verses. We just got some interesting music going on, rather than a dragging third verse; I was messing with all these guitar pedals and backwards synths and shit like that, and that’s how that came about.

“Kanye came in that night to the studio while we were sitting there doing it, and I think it was me who suggested that Cudi do some shit on that trippy part at the end, like, ’Man you should rap. Do some sing song-y bridge kinda thing.’ He and Kanye were like, ’Nah fuck that, it’s the mood. That’s the whole point, it's like the mood.’ and I was like, ’Aight.’ This record is definitely looking at the club through the eyes of Kid Cudi. That’s Cudi in some crazy New York club after 4 a.m. and the shit is still going and there’s liquor and models and drugs. Listen to the verses; I know dude, and that’s him sitting there in a dark-ass club looking around and what he’s thinking. It really captures that whole scene.”

Maniac f/ Cage & St. Vincent

Produced by: Anthony Kilhoffer
Anthony Killhoffer: “I engineered a lot for Kid Cudi in the past. I worked on Man On The Moon and I've been engineering with Kanye for like 10 years. I mixed ’Heart of a Lion’ and ’Sky Might Fall.’ I engineered all this new shit, too, ’Mr. Rager’ and ’Mojo So Dope.’ [I made the beat] around the first of the year when G.O.O.D Music was Hawaii doing work. I was looking into a record and sampling other shit. I found [the sample] watching Austin City Limits, oddly enough. You don't really think of that for a Cudi record, but that's where I first heard the song and I was just like, ’I gotta get that shit and sample it.’ Cudi thought it was dope and he wanted to use it. And I was like, 'If you like it then let’s make that happen.'

“It sat around for a month. [Cudi recorded the song] February or March. Then they got the idea for Cage in March, so I went back and did additional production. Once Cudi looked at the hook, he had an idea about how the song should sound. I came up with all the effects, like half-timing the hook and the guitar. I did everything that you shouldn't do in a pop format to make a pop song. I made the chorus slower than the verse musically. I didn't have a kick drum on the down beat. Nothing hit on the one of the chorus.”

Cage: “Cudi reached out—I'd say it was about February—and we started talking from there. He said he wanted to do a record together...and then he didn't talk about the records for months. At the time, I was living in New York and we lived like 8 blocks away from each other. We just hung out, smoked weed, played video games. It was weird, I’d worked with people in the past where after a short time you'd go to the studio and work on the song. I think it was like if there was no vibe, then how could there be a working relationship? We just kinda became friends. After a while I would just be sitting in on [studio] sessions. By the time we were doing the song together, there was no 'I don't know what he wants me to do on this.' It was like I knew, you know? And I had a feel for the project already because I'd heard so many songs. It usually doesn't happen that way.

“We would text a lot and he was telling me about the song. At this point we had already been chopping it up for like five months. He came over, played it for me, and he had a verse on it already. He was like, 'You fuckin’ with this?' and I was like, ’Hell, yeah.’ I sat with it probably for like a week. I just sat with it and I was like, ’I don't know what to do with this record.’ Writing to it was difficult because after a while it would just be this singing sample over and over. It's like, ’Why couldn't I get that one that Chip was on?’ [’The End’] was fucking great. That one was straightforward, I coulda just killed that. I'm like, ’Fuck, I get the challenging one. I gotta rap over a girl singing.’ [Before, the sample] ran all the way through beginning to end except on the hooks. That's the version that leaked online. I hated that version. I hate doing vocals over vocals. [Now the sample is] not under the verses. And being on a huge record, I wasn't sure how fucked up to get on the record. I just tried to play from the perspective of where the record was going. It's a concept record, so it's like a movie. Everyone's billed as starring, so I tried to fit where the record was going.

“Working with Cudi is cool. That night in the studio [when we recorded the song] I rewrote half of my verse right there. And I remember it being frustrating because the way he works, he's all over the place. He's just working on multiple things. Dude's work ethic is crazy. He told the engineer to play the song so I can write to it, and then after a couple of runs of it he's like, 'I'm going in to do these vocals on this other song.' So, he goes in to this other session [for ’Mr. Rager’]. He just does a lot of shit. Dude works like a real maniac.

“Like, we did Late Night With Jimmy Fallon the other night. [The next day on Twitter] Dot Da Genius posted a photo of Cudi holding a script from the ’Maniac’ short film that Shia Labeouf is directing. Shia didn't introduce us, but Cudi recently met Shia over Halloween—that's when we kinda came up with the whole video. With Kanye doing that ’Runaway’ shit, it's like, “Yo, you can be artistic again.’ It doesn't have to be a regular-ass video, you know? So Shia had this idea and of course we were both like, 'That's fucking crazy.' And now me and Cudi are both holding scripts. And I suspect it's gonna be the craziest shit because when Shia did my video [“I Never Knew You”], that was his first video. You're shooting performance stuff and it's totally not his element. But, this time around it's a short film so this is what that whole crew does. This is their forte.”

Mr. Rager

Produced by: Emile
Emile: “This was done before we went to Hawaii. He called me on the phone from L.A. I think he was in the studio with Snoop Dogg, doing ’That Tree,’ and I was sitting in the studio by myself making a beat. I was playing it while I was talking to him, which normally drives people crazy, but he was just like, ’Yo, what the fuck is that? Send it to me.’ I was like, ’Aight, let me produce it up.’ I’ll tend to completely over-produce shit, and I didn't want to send it to him yet, but he insisted. I did a quick bounce and sent it to him and then he called me back the next day, super-excited, and was like, ’Yo dude, I just bodied this record. Wait ’til you hear it.’

“In the meantime, I had added a million things since I first sent him the beat, and we were going to Hawaii soon so it was just like, ’Aight, I’ll see you in Hawaii and we’ll fuck with it.’ We kept working on it in Hawaii; we’d just pull that song up every day and work on it for a little bit. Every time I think of being out in Hawaii, it was always this record that was just so fucking fresh. From my end, that was what led to the sound of this album; it’s a pretty unique sounding record for hip-hop, and it was a different vibe that would be my blueprint for the production on this album. It was the first one that we really nailed.”

These Worries f/ Mary J. Blige

Produced by: Emile
Emile: “This is probably my favorite song on the album. A lot of times me and Cudi kinda cook up something from scratch, as we do on most of these records. This one I actually made the beat and it’s definitely following that blueprint of ’Mr. Rager’ and that kind of sound with the distorted drums, creepy synths, and pianos. This one I had the beat not fully done but almost done; I sent it to him and called it ’Monsters,’ because of the creepy screaming in the background. I was always trying to push him to do this one and he was always kinda like, ’Eh.’ Months went on and one day he was like, ’Yeah, I had this chorus for it, but I dunno if I really fuck with it.’ He sang the chorus, which is exactly the same as what you hear on the record now. We were on a flight and he sang that chorus and I was like, ’Dude, that’s dope as fuck. Lets do that.’ He was still like, ’ehhhh’. He'd play the beat in his headphones over and over, and I remember him saying, ’You know what? I want to get Mary [J. Blige] to do that chorus, she’d kill it,’ and I was like, ’Hell yeah, she would.’ I think he might have even written it for Mary, but this was a long time ago and I was like, ’what are the chances we’re gonna get Mary to get on the album?’ So finally he came in the studio and cut the record and I loved it right off the bat. He definitely wanted Mary on the album, and this was the first song he wanted to get Mary on. When we got her in the studio, the song was done and he played it for her. Cudi was like, ’You know, when I originally wrote this song I kind of envisioned you on the chorus,’ and she was like, ’Man, I’ll jump on that right now.’ They kind of sang this duet together, which I just thought was incredible, and his post-chorus after the hook with him and Mary is just powerful. It's one of my favorite moments on the album. It really is a song that captures him, and the year that he’s had and some of the darker places that he’s been in. It's just a scary record which I love. I had in my mind that third verse bridge thing with the beat breaking down and the giant string buildup, and I was really happy the way it came together. It's exactly what I heard, and Larry just killed the strings as always.”

The End f/ GLC, Chip Tha Ripper, & Nicole Wray

Produced by: Blended Babies
Rich Parry (of Blended Babies): “That beat’s probably two years old, like early '08. J.P. was workin with The Cool Kids doing engineering and production. They're always in the A room of the studio [in the Bucktown neighborhood of Chicago] and I'm usually just hangin’ out in the lobby making beats, sampling, and chopping shit up. I just found this one sample for “I Need Your Love” by this old soul group from D.C. called Skip Mahoney and the Casuals. Sampled a two-bar loop, chopped it up, put some drums over it. Played it for J and he was like, ’Man, I got a baseline.’ Last Thanksgiving we were out in NY at DD 172 doing some stuff with The Black Keys and Cool Kids for these BlackRoc sessions for the new BlackRoc II record that hadn't even come out yet. I was in the basement with Om'Mas Keith from Sa-Ra making beats. That was one of the records that Om' Mas started playing bass on, and Dame was passed out on the couch ’cause we were all smoking weed. Dame wakes up and freaks out, like, “Oh my God, this is fuckin’ it, dog.” Runs upstairs and gets Nicole Wray, she comes down, writes the hook in like 10 minutes. Lays it down.”

J.P. (of Blended Babies): “We sent it out to people but they weren't really doing shit with it. We knew it was a better beat.”

Rich Parry: “I think David Banner hit me back about that beat. Freddie Gibbs had that beat. A shitload of people hit me back and were like, ’It's dope,’ but nobody ever recorded shit to it. GLC and Chip just sorta knocked it out and did the shit and then Cudi heard it and was all about it. “

Chip Tha Ripper: “I’m chillin’ in the tour bus with Cudi around April or May. We had this little cord we hooked up to the auxiliary on the TV. The speakers was shitty but he was letting me hear some new shit for the album. ’The End’ was one of the five songs I played him and when I played ’The End’ and it turned off, he was like, ’I need that for my album.’ He just heard it one time on these terrible speakers. He didn’t get the full effect of the song, but he definitely got the feeling of it.

“After he heard it, in the summer we were going to record [at a studio in West Hollywood] to finish up this album and he was in there for two or three days. We was just chillin’ out, smoking like crazy, had a little bag of the fungi. Fungi is plural for fungus, which means we had shrooms. Two of those three days we was just working on “The End.” He recorded his verse and he was real particular about the strings and music. He broke [the record] down and built it back up in front of me in two days. He re-arranged chords how he wanted them, some parts of the hook, and took vocals out.

“Most of the album was already done. That was one of the last additions to the album. There was a lot of records that were on there that’s not on there no more. Like ’Marijuana’ used to sound totally different than it does now. That’s why you gotta keep going in there. I guess that’s why he keeps going in and fixing records to make sure it sounds perfect.”

All Along

Produced by: Emile
Emile: “I was thinking about it today because today was this rainy fall day in New York where all the leaves were orange and it was rainy and cold. That’s kinda what ’All Along’ is. It's a very personal record for Cudi obviously and something he was dealing with at the time, and he just expressed it on the record. I had the drums and the piano for the beat and we were just in the studio and played that and he was just into it. He sat and sort of freestyled it. I remember he did it quick, and as soon as he got in the booth and did the first line I was just like, ’Oh shit, that’s going to be the shit.’ It was classic Cudi delivery, the style on it was just classic, and I remember texting Pat because Pat wasn’t there, after one line. I was like, ’Yo, we got a fucking banger right now.’ I don’t think Cudi likes to talk about that record that much because it’s a personal thing for him. It’s the real emotion that he had at the time and it's just a really special record. Sonically it's so good, Larry Gold did a fucking amazing job on the strings. I was talking to Larry when we were putting that one together, and wanted to capture some Beatles kind vibe on the strings, he just nailed that one.”

GHOST!

Produced by: Emile
Emile: “I think ’Ghost!’ could be—and I could be wrong about this—but it could be the first step towards the next material we’re gonna hear from Cudi. We were actually in the studio just listening to trippy psych records from the late ’60s, early ’70s, and that sample came up and he was like, ’Yo, that’s ill right there, let’s do it.’ So we made this record that kind of emulated the sample and I hooked it up quick on the MPC. It was just some drums and some dirty guitars that Ken Lewis played. Ken Lewis is an ill musician who's been doing his thing behind the scenes for a very long time now, and he's incredible at capturing a tone. He nailed it, and Cudi really loved the beat. It’s a lot more aggressive and harsh than records like ’All Along’ or ’Solo Dolo’ or ’Heaven At Night,’ which all have that classic Cudi harmony. This is more of a new tone for him. It’s a harsher feel, and I think it’s a good beginning for his new sound.”

Trapped In My Mind

Produced by: Dot Da Genius
Dot Da Genius: “This is kind of crazy to me because before we made the song Cudi thought he had everything for his album, that it was a done deal and it was wrapped up. So one day I was at his crib chillin', and we kept talkin about the old days— in 2005/06 up until 2008 we were in my basement using my home studio and my home crib studio we built. I was just like, ’Yo, we need to get a studio in [your house].’ That’s something that he never thought about doing, but he knew that I had experience putting studios together so we went for it. We went out and bought a whole bunch of studio equipment that day. I put it together and put the desk together. After we set up, I brought over some production stuff and we started working on a song. ’Trapped in My Mind’ was the first song we worked on and like always he came up with the melody real fast. He came up with lyrics, and I have that all on camera. It took like an hour for the song to be really solid and to know where it was going and the production was pretty much done. So, once we were working on it, it wasn’t even a thought for that to be on the album. I thought we was just working on joints for the next joint, and he was like, ’No, this gotta go on the album’ and he set it in stone. He made the calls. After that, we just took it to another level. We worked on it over a span of two days like at his crib. Recorded the vocals at his house like real renegade and it just came together. It’s one of those songs that has that vibe.”
 

·
Registered
Joined
·
1,611 Posts
“I think ’Ghost!’ could be—and I could be wrong about this—but it could be the first step towards the next material we’re gonna hear from Cudi"

eek. I liked ghost, but idk if I would like a whole album of that style music...
 

·
Registered
Joined
·
5,136 Posts
Needs to be bumped for everyone else to "must read".
http://www.complex.com/blog_galleries/the-making-of-kid-cudis-man-on-the-moon-ii-the-legend-of-mr-rager/
 
1 - 13 of 13 Posts
Top